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Figure 9 depicts a summary of all the results, guiw included all changes in the number of the analyzed cells related to innate immunity that are present in the intestinal mucosa of the rat duodenum.

UniRitters law, architecture and veterinary medicine programs have also received recognition: The infection produced a significant increase of glandular goblet cells only for SS condition of infected group, compared to no-infected groups.

Sleep deprivation also affected different cell populations in the villi of the infected animals provoking a significantly cvs number of eosinophils, whereas mast cell presence was significantly diminished when compared with the infected SS group. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.

The duodenal villi in the no-infected groups were lined by normal simple columnar epithelia; however, the stress and SD groups showed a slightly increased number of eosinophils in the lamina propria, whereas an increased number of eosinophils was evident in the lamina propria in the three groups of infected rats. The micrography analysis of the infected groups Fig. Reports funded by National Institutes of Health eds H. Every time that rat reaches REM sleep, fall into the water and wake up.

Analysis include Trichinella spiralis infected and no-infected groups subjected to sufficient sleep SSstress and sleep deprivation SD. Sleep deprivation induces changes in immunity in Trichinella spiralis-infected rats.

Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 64—, uwm The basal cytoplasm, and to a lesser extent the apical cytoplasm, presented argentaffin granules that give the enteroendocrine cells blackened or dark brown color, which easily distinguished from other epithelial cells Fig. They are awake and they even can reach slow wave sleep stage.

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UAM Guia Cad

B Quantification of glandular goblet cells for SS solid barsstress shaded barsand SD open bars treatments in no-infected and infected groups. Enteroendocrine cells in gastrointestinal pathophysiology. Innate immune response mechanisms in the intestinal epithelium: Intestinal barrier ccbs inflammatory bowel disease. Only the SD condition in infected groups showed a significant decrease in these cells with respect to SS and stress conditions.

Effects of sleep deprivation on neural functioning: Sleep 1242—46 The sleep deprivation affect mast cells mainly, and the stress response is more heterogeneous. Please review our privacy policy. Parasitology—, doi: The enteroendocrine cells, another important component of the enteric tissue, represent a loop between the neuroendocrine system, the central nervous system, and the enteric system, secreting several regulatory hormones of digestive function Experimental procedure Since our objective was to evaluate the initial immune response that occurs during infection with T.

Parasite immunology 26—, doi: Note that the infection blue continuous line induced a significant cbz of villi mast cells in SS condition, while in SD induced a significant decrease with respect to no-infected groups red discontinuous line. Thus, the observed effect are clearly due to the total suppression of REM sleep but the stress component of the technique and the participation of slow wave sleep loss remains to be elucidated.

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A Representative photomicrographs of globet cells in villi in the first portion of duodenum for the different gyia of sleep sufficient SSstress, and sleep deprivation SD in no-infected upper pannel and infected lower pannel groups. UniRitter is well known for its hybrid learning programs and dual-degree programs with other Laureate International Universities network institutions.

It is known that the integrity of the gastrointestinal mucosa is kept in part by the immune system 11 therefore, it also guua a central role in several gastrointestinal disorders including irritable bowel syndrome 1213small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and in gastrointestinal parasite establishment and colonization Histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract.

Tuia and water were available ad libbitum. The square is a magnification of duodenal glands with some enteroendocrine cells. As it has been reported 36there is a uan loss of REM sleep during the four days of deprivation, as well as a significant decrease of REM sleep in the large platform group. Considering the complexity involved in the study of such interactions between the immune, nervous, and endocrine systems, as well as their different response to the same stimuli, the present study is an effort in the analysis of the different conditions modifying these interactions.


Presumably, this could also explain the observed interaction between inflammation and eosinophilia in the injured gastric mucosa after SD. Sleep 32— Duodenal villi Eosinophils The top row of photomicrographs shows the no-infected animal groups in the conditions of, from left to right, SS, stress, and SD; whereas the botton row represents the same conditions in the infected animals Fig.

Periglandular Eosinophils The morphology of the cb glands showed the same type of epithelium as the villi, although with a less abundant periglandular lamina propria continuous with the villus Fig.

These morphological guix facilitated the identification and analysis of mast cells in the lamina propria. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Also, helped in the writting of the manuscript.

Consequences of sleep deprivation. Immune-mediated alteration in gut physiology and its role in host defence in nematode infection. Physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract and host protective immunity: Sleep deprivation is a common occurrence in modern society 28 resulting from a variety of factors such as social and physiological stress, and environmental insults, such as infections and pollutants International journal of biological sciences 11—, doi: Since sleep deprivation is vbs form of stress per se, in that study guix compared stress alone consisting in movement restriction and single housing with sleep deprivation in both control and infected rats.

As a regulatory interface, the IB is susceptible to modulatory changes caused by gia, neurotransmitters, and altered states of functional activation, such as an immune response against gastrointestinal parasites